TRACING AND SCRUTINY OF TITLE TO IMMOVABLE PROPERTY

Though you have dealt various real estate dealings you may have not dealt with all topics office use in real estate. Hence it is always best to get assistance from Chanakya advisors. To purchase or Sell your properties. Then all doubts, frustrations will be cleared by Chanakya Advisors, the knowledge you need to gain on topics such as under said.

I) Basic Concepts of Property and transfer explained:

Preliminary:- 1) Need of investigation of title, 2) The Institution of Property, 3) Property under roman Law, 3.1) Modes of Acquiring Ownership, 3.2) Natural Modes of Acquiring Ownership, 3.3) Rights in the Property of Others (Jura in Re Aliena), 3.4) Servitudes, 3.5) Emphyteusis, 3.6) superficies, 3.7) Mortgage, 3.8) Pignus, 3.9) Hypotheca, 4) John Locke on Property, 5) English Law of Property, 6) Ancient Indian Context, 7) Institutes of Manu, 8) Right to property under Indian Constitution, 8.1) Right to property, 8.2) Deprivation of property,9) Title of property, 9.1) Enquiry into title, 9.2) Benami Purchase, 9.3) Effect of defective Title, 9.4) exchange, 9.5) disclaimer, 9.6) Issue as to title, 9.7) Proof of title, 9.8) Course open when title is in question, 9.9) acquisition of title (by agreement), 9.10) Conferment of title by section 53-A, T.P. Act, 9.11) Presumption of title in case of grant, 9.12) Suit for declaration of title, 9.13) Property in custody of receiver, 9.14) Passing of title, 9.15) Improvement made without title, 9.16) Effect of declaration of title by court, 9.17) Title of goodwill, 9.18) Title to mortgaged land, 9.19) Denial of the title of landlord, 9.20) Forfeiture, 9.21) Effect of Jamabandi, 10) Ownership, 10.1) Historic outline, 10.2) Effect of an agreement on ownership, 10.3) Transfer of ownership, 11) Possession, 11.1) Possession after redemption of mortgage, 11.2) Alieniee’s right of possession, 11.3) Attachment under section 145 Cr.P.C., 11.4) Receiver’s possession, 11.5) Possession in dispute, 11.6) Redelivery of possession, 11.7) Restoration of possession, 11.8) Finding of the Civil Court, 11.9) Effect of determination of person to be in possession, 11.10) Competency of Revenue Appellate Tribunal, 11.11) Effect of transfer of a member’s share, 11.12) Transfer under unregistered sale deed, 11.13) Right to defend unequal possession, 11.14) Effect of entering into possession, 11.15) Necessary features of part performance, 11.16) Effect of not satisfying conditions under Section 53 A, 11.17) Bona fide Purchase of Property, 11.18) Failure to prove Possession, 11.19) Failure to frame issues as to nature of possession, 11.20) Validity of notice of termination of tenancy, 11.21) Ingredients of agreement of sale, 11.22) The defence of possession, 11.23) partner’s right, 11.24) Oral agreement, 11.25) What the expression “any person claiming under him” means, 11.26) Statutory recognition of part performance, 11.27) Permissive possession, 11.28) Adverse possession, 11.29) Physical or symbolic possession, 11.30) Conclusive hint for scrutiny of title, 12) Transfer of property, 12.1) In 12.10) Hints for scrutiny of title, 12.11) Whether gift amount to transfer, 12.12) What is transferable, 12.13) Transfer of right with a right to re-purchase, 12.14) Effect of relinquishment, 12.15) Transfer of life interest, 12.16) Transfer of minor’s property, 12.17) Transfer in violation of public policy, 12.18) Transfer by gift, 12.19) Granted house sites, 12.20) Illom properties, 12.23) Persons competent to transfer, 12.24) Difference between undue influence and capacity to execute, 12.25) Proof of undue influence, 12.26) Lunacy, 12.27) Minor as transferee, 12.28) manager's authority, 12.29) Transfer by Power-of-Attorney holder, 12.30) points for scrutiny of title, 12.31) Effect of transfer, 13) Proof of execution of settlement deed, 14) Identity of property, 14.1) points for scrutiny of title, 15) Interpretation of terms of contract.

II) MODES OF DERIVATION OF TITLE

1)Transfer of title, 2) Assignment, 1) Assignment of contract, 2) Assignment of right of re-conveyance, 3) Point for scrutiny of title, 3) Exchange, 1) Ingredients of Section 118, 2) Effect of exchange, 3) Exchange in the name of wife, 4) Exchange and compromise of Criminal cases, 5) Rights and liabilities of parties to exchange, 6) Subject matter of exchange, 7) Parties to exchange, 8) Right to sue, 9) Execution of exchange, 10) Difference between exchange and sale, 11) Registration of exchange, 12) Point for scrutiny of title, 4) Gift, 1) Necessary essentials, 2) Acceptance, 3) Acceptance before death of donor, 4) Unique influence, 5) Grandmother’s gift appointing mother as manager, 6) Gift to daughters, 7) Gift by father-in-law, 8) gift by widow, 9) Gift of joint family property, 10) Gift to deity, 11) Gift by Kartha, 12) Onerous gift, 13) Universal done, 14) Retention of Possession, 15) Gifts under Muslim law, 15.1) Difference between Hiba and Hiba-bil-ewaz, 16) Effect of mixing up property, 17) Registration of gift, 18) Revocation of gift, 19) Points for Scrutiny of title, 5) Lease, 1) Applicable of principle under section (111)(g), T.P.Act:, 2) Duration of lease, 3) Inheritance of lease, 4) Types of lease, 5) Perpetual lease, 6) Registration, 7) Notice of termination, 8) Rights and liabilities of the parties to the lease, 8.1) Rights and liabilities of lessor, 8.2) Rights of liabilities of lessee, 9) Difference between lease and licence, 10) Effect of redemption and creation of mortgage on lease-hold rights, 11) Mining lease, 12) Permanent tenancy, 13) Registration of lease, 14) Renewal of lease, 15) Points for scrutiny of title, 6) Mortgage, 1) Types of mortgages, 1.1) Simple mortgage, 1.2) Mortgage by conditional sale, 1.3) Difference between mortgage by conditional sale and sale, 1.4) Absolute ownership, 1.5) Conclusive hint for scrutiny of title, 1.6) Usufructuary mortgage or Ilibhoga, 1.7) English mortgage, 1.8) Anomalous mortgage, 1.9) Mortgage by deposit of title deed, 1.10) The concept of memorandum of title deeds, 1.11) Hints for scrutiny of title in case of mortgage by deposit of title deeds, 2) Rights and liabilities of mortgagor, 3) Redemption of mortgage, 4) Registration of mortgage, 5) Points for scrutiny of title. 7) Sale, 1) who can sell and buy?, 2) what can be sold?, 3) Agreement to sell, 3.1) Whether a sale deed, 3.2) Adverse possession, 3.3) The doctrine of part performance, 3.4) Conditions precedent to defend transferee’s possession, 3.5) Agreement to identify the property, 3.6) Oral agreement, 4) defective title, 5) Consideration, 6) Sale deed, 6.1) date of execution of the sale deed, 7) Rights and liabilities of seller and buyer, 7.1) Liabilities of seller, 7.2) Rights of the seller, 7.3) Buyer’s liabilities, 7.4) Rights of the buyer, 8) Registration, 9) Points for scrutiny of title, 8) Title by succession, 1) Application of Indian Succession Act, 1925, 1.1) General application of Part VI, 1.2) Provisions with respect to certificates under Bombay Regulation VIII of 1827, 2) Certain Definitions, 3) Domicil by Marriage-Effect of, 4) Consanguinity, 5) Computation of degrees, 6) Intestate succession, 6.1) Rules of Intestate Succession, 7) points for tracing title, 9) Wills, 1) types of wills, 2) Competency of testator and legatee, 3) Document of Will and its execution, 4) determination of the nature of the document, 5) Attestation of Will, 6) Bequests, 7) Ademption of legacy, 8) Codicil, 9) Probate and letters of Administration, 9.1) To whom administration may be granted, where deceased is a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh, jaina or exempted person, 9.2) Where deceased is not a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh, Jaina or exempted person, 9.3) Persons to whom probate cannot be granted, 9.4) Object of grant of Letters of Administration, 9.5) Jurisdiction of Probate Court, 9.6) Limitation, 9.7) Executor and Administrators, 9.8) Effect of grant of Letters of administration, 9.9) Caveat, 9.10) points for scrutiny of title, 10) Title by grant, 1) points for scrutiny of title.

III) Matters as to Flats, Apartments and Timesharing

Preliminary, 1) Flat, 2) Apartment, 3) Apartment ownership, 4) How this concept operates, 5) Easementary rights of the owners, 6) Limited interest, 7) Declaration of the owners, 8) Deeds of apartments, 9) General liabilities of the promoter, 2) Bye-laws of the Association, 3) The Concept of timesharing, 1) How the concept works, 2) Interest of the purchaser, 3) Viability of the concept, 4) things should be looked into at the time of purchase, 5) Hints for scrutiny of title.


IV) Construction of Deeds

Preliminary, 1) Unambiguous words, 2) Contents of the deed, 3) Nomenclature of the deed, 4) Boundaries, 5) harmonious construction, 6) Rule of extension and restriction, 7) Extrinsic evidence, 2) Interpretation of contracts, 3) Interpretation of Will, 1) Interpretation of vernacular Will, 2) Rules of interpretation of Will, 3) Legal terms, how construed, 4) Intention of the testator, 5) Construction of joint Will, 6) Comparison of words of one Will with those of another, 4) Interpretation of sale deed, 5) Effect of one invalid clause, 6) Interpretation of documents executed by common man, 7) Comparison of two documents, 8) Interpretation of a document, 9) Interpretation of an old document, 10) Lease and lease agreement, 11) Effect of cancellation deed, 12) Construction of settlement deed, 13) Construction of Trust deed, 14) Construction of sale deed, 15) Application of judicial Precedents.


V) Tracing and Scrutiny of title

1) Introductory, 1) Unregistered Property, 2) registered Property, 3) Abstract of title, 4) Abstract of title deeds, 5) A Banker’s Requirement, 6) Map, 2) Searches, 1) Revenue Records, 1.1) Presumptions regarding entries in revenue records, 1.2) Effect of entries in revenue records, 1.3) Two revenue records relating to same property, 1.4) Unchanged entries, 1.5) Patta Book, 1.6) Mutation, 1.7) Searches in the revenue records, 2) Searches in Sub-Registrar’s Office, 3) Searches in Land Acquisition Offices, 4) Searches in Registrar of Companies, 5) Searches in Courts, 6) Report, 3) Summery of tracing and scrutiny of title.

VI) Principles of Drafting

Introductory, 1) What should be kept in mind, 2) Knowledge of law, 3) The spade work, 4) Name of the game, 5) How to go about, 6) Hard work, 2) Essentials of a document or deed, 1) Nomenclature, 2) date, 3) Parties to the document, 4) Usual recitals, 5) Testatum, 6) Consideration, 7) Receipt of consideration, 8) Operative clauses, 9) Parcels, 10) Reservations (if any), 11) Habendum, 12) Testimonium, 13) Signatures, 14) Attestation, 3) Certain words and phrases,

VII) Valuation of Immovable Property and Registration

1) Determination of market value, 1) Determining factors, 2) Methods of valuation, 2) Guiding Principles, 1) value – What is , 2) Determination of market value, 3) Valuation for the purpose of the Act, 4) Considerations, 5) Adoption of multiple methods of valuation, 6) Value on the date of notification, 7) Irrigated land, 8) Evidence, 8.1) Onus of proof, 8.2) Purchase document, 8.3) Evidence, 8.4) Basic valuation, 8.5) Sale deeds, 8.6) Certified Copies, 8.7) Proof of certified copies, 8.8) Distress sale, 8.9) Non-irrigated land, 9) Comparison, 10) Orchards, 11) Trees, 12) Fruit bearing trees, 13) grove land, 14) Buildings, 15) Square feet basic, 16) Under-developed land, 17) Raise in land value, 18) Subsequent developments, 19) Sale of smaller pieces, 20) Court decisions, 21) Potential value, 22) Deprivation of source of irrigation, 3) Determination of market value, 1) Methods, 2) Capitalisation Method, 2.1) Capitalisation – What is, 2.2) How it works, 2.3) Applicability of the method, 2.4) Factors involved, 2.5) Larger return, 3) Multiplier, 3.1) Determination of proper multiplier, 3.2) Multiplier of 15, 3.3) Uniform multiplier, 3.4) Proper Multiplier, 3.5) Multiplier of 20, 4) Comparable sales, 4.1) Sale instances, 4.2) Time gap, 4.3) Distress sale, 4.4) Sale of small land, 4.5) Subsequent transactions, 4.6) Sale of far away land, 4.7) Failure to produce sale deed, 4.8) Sale transactions of authority, 4.9) Basic value Register, 5) Expert opinion, 5.1) Export who is, 5.2) How he should evaluate, 5.3) Evidence of expert, 5.4) Evidentiary value, 5.5) Cogent reasons, 5.6) Reliability, 5.7) Surveyor’s opinion, 5.8) Reasons, 5.9) Expertise, 6) Relevant Statutory Provisions of the Land Acquisition Act 1894, 7) Government Rates, 8) Factors to be considered in determination of market value, 9) Valuation under Wealth Tax Act, 1957, 4) What documents are required to be registered, 1)Documents of which registration is optional, 2) Documents exempted from registration.

VIII) Inevitable statutory extracts relevant for scrutiny of title

1) Statutory Extracts, 1) Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Act, 1988, 2) Contract Act, 1872, 3) Easement Act, 1882, 4) General Clauses Act, 1897, 5) Guardians and Wards Act, 1890, 6) Hindu Minority and guardianship Act, 1956, 7) Hindu Succession Act, 1956, 8) Income Tax Act, 1961, 9) Limitation Act, 1963, 10) The Muslim Women (Protection Rights on divorce) Act, 1986, 11) Notaries Act, 12) Partition Act, 1893, 13) Powers of Attorney Act, 1882, 14) Societies Registration Act, 1860, 15) Specific Relief Act, 1963, 16) Trusts Act, 1882, 17) Wakf Act, 1995, 18) Transfer of Property Act, 1882, 19) State laws affecting or restricting transfer and acquisition of property, 19.1) Andhra Pradesh, 19.2) Delhi, 19.3) Gujarath, 19.4) Karnataka, 19.5) Kerala, 19.6) Maharashtra, 19.7) Rajasthan, 19.8) Tamil Nadu, 19.9) Uttar Pradesh, 19.10) West Bengal,